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Saturday April 11th, 2009
In this week's podcast, we're going to learn the different ways that the <ed> ending is pronounced. This is the ending that we use in the simple past tense. Learning the proper pronunciation of <ed> is an essential part of speaking English correctly with a standard American accent.
The focus of this weeks podcast is:
As you may already know, we use the <ed> ending to indicate the past tense of regular verbs.
Exercise: Listen to the following sentence. It contains three regular verbs in the past tense.
She worked on the weekend because she realized that she needed more money.
This sentence contains three regular verbs in the past tense. It contains the three possible pronunciations of <ed>. Notice how the pronunciation of <ed> in each word is different.
She worked on the weekend because she realized she needed the money.
In this sentence, we have: worked , realized and needed.
Exercise: Listen and repeat the three verbs in the simple past.
worked ... realized ...needed
In the verb "worked" <ed> is poronounced /t/ - /wɚrkt/
In "realized", <ed> is pronounced /d/ - /riəlaIzd/
In "needed" <ed> is pronounced /Id/ - /nidId/
This sentence demonstrates the three possible pronunciations for <ed> in the past tense.
How to Determine When to Use each of these Pronunciations :
Let's learn the rules for when to use each of these pronounciations of <ed>.
Rule #1: If the verb ends in a voiceless sound, <ed> is pronounced /t/.
As in the previous example, work ends in /k/. /k/ is voiceless. Our vocal folds do not vibrate when we say /k/. Therefore, we pronounce <ed> as /t/ : /wɚkt/
Rule #2: If the verb ends in a voiced sound , <ed> is pronounced /d/.
As in the previous example, "realize" ends in /z/. /z/ is a voiced consonant- our vocal folds vibrate when we say /z/. Therefore, we pronounce <ed> as d : /riəlaIzd/
Rule #3: If the verb ends in< t> or <d>, <ed> is pronounced /Id /.
As in the previous example, the verb "need" ends in <d>. Therefore, <ed> is pronounced /Id/. /nidId/
Avoid this Common Mistake:
I often hear English students make the mistake of adding an extra syllable to verbs like 'talk" or "change". They make the mistake of saying /tɔkId/ or /tʃeIndʒId/.
Exercise: Pronunciation of <ed> in verbs that end in a voiceless sound. (rule #1)
Listen and repeat the following pairs of words. The first word is the verb in its simple form. The second is the verb in its simple past with the <ed> ending. Because they end in a voiceless sound, the <ed> will be pronounced as /t/ with no extra syllable.
Simple Form... ..... Past tense <ed> pronounced as /t/
like... liked /laIkt/
kiss... kissed /kIst/
push... pushed /pʊʃt/
laugh... laughed /læft/
help... helped /hɛlpt/
Exercise: Prononunciation of <ed> in verbs that end in a voiced sound. (rule#2)
Listen and repeat the following pairs of words.
Simple Form... ..... Past tense: <ed> pronounced as /d/
rob robbed /rabd/
hug hugged /həgd/
call called /kɔld/
love loved /ləvd/
charge charged /tʃardʒd/
agree agreed /əgrid/
Exercise: Pronunciation of <ed> in verbs that end in < t> or <d>.
Listen and repeat the following pairs of words.
Simple Form .... Past tense: <ed> pronounced as /Id/
need needed /nidId/
add added /ædId/
want wanted /wɔtId/
attend attended /ətɛndId/
react reacted /riæktId/
Now that you've learned the rules for pronouncing <ed> in the past tense, you may have realized that you've been pronouncing some words incorrectly.
At the same time, you may have realized that you've learned the pronunciaton of <ed> naturally "by ear" in many cases. Maybe you just picked it up.
But at the same time, it's also good to know the rules which English pronunciation follows.
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Thank you and see you next time!Share
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